The Canvas

The canvas area is the live, editable part of a document. By using the Canvas Size command, you can add or delete pixels from one, two, three, or all four sides of the canvas. Adding pixels would be useful, say, if you want to make room for some type, as in the example shown here, or to accommodate imagery from other documents in a multilayer collage.

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(a05-01) To change the canvas size of a document:

a) Choose Image > Canvas Size (Ctrl-Alt-C/Cmd- Option-C).The Canvas Size dialog opens.

 (1) From the Height setting, I chose a unit of measure – NOTE: dimensions in example above are in inches.

b) Do either of the following:

Enter new Width and/or Height values. The dimensions work independently; changing one won’t affect the other.

Check Relative, then increase or reduce the Width and/or Height values to alter the ratio between those dimensions.

 (2) The black dot in the center of the Anchor arrows represents the existing image area. Click a square to reposition the image relative to the canvas. The arrows point to where the canvas area will be added or deleted.

To add canvas area to the top of this image, in the Canvas Size dialog, we increased the Height value, then clicked the bottom middle Anchor square to shift the block dot downward.

 (3) If you’re adding to the canvas, from the Canvas Extension Color menu, choose a color option for the new area. Or to choose a custom color, choose Other or click the color square next to the menu then choose a color in the Color Picker or by clicking in the document window. Note: If the image doesn’t have a Background, this menu won’t be available, and the added canvas area will be filled with transparency.

6. Click OK.: If your settings made the canvas smaller, an alert dialog may appear. Click Proceed

To enlarge the canvas to include all layer content, including any content that is hidden outside it, choose Image > Reveal All

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Cropping an image

(a0502) To crop an image manually:

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1. Choose the Crop tool (C or Shift-C).

2. Choose one of the following options, either from the Aspect Ratio (first) menu on the Options bar or from the context menu (right-click in the image):

To crop the image without constraints, on the Options bar, choose Ratio, then click Clear; or choose Clear Ratio from the context menu.

To preserve the original proportions of the document while cropping it, choose Original Ratio.

Choose a ratio preset, such as 5:7 (or enter custom width and height ratio values on the Options bar).

3. To preserve the cropped areas, uncheck Delete Cropped Pixels on the Options bar.

4. Define which part of the image you want to keep by dragging a handle or an edge of the crop box. Areas outside the crop box will be covered with a tinted shield.

To resize the crop box from the center, drag a handle with Alt/Option held down.

To preserve the current ratio (even if the ratio fields on the Options bar are blank), Shift-drag a corner handle.

5. Do any of the following optional steps:

To reposition the part of the image that is going to be preserved, drag inside the box.

To rotate the image in the crop box, position the cursor just outside the box, then drag in a circular direction. (To change the locus from which the image rotates, drag the reference point away from the center of the box before rotating.)

To hide, then show, the areas outside the crop box, press H.

To switch the orientation of the crop box, click the Swap Width and Height button if on the Options bar.

6. To accept the crop edits, double-click inside the crop box or press Enter/Return. You should resharpen the image, as you have just changed its pixel count.

Note: Because you used the Crop tool with the Delete Cropped Pixels option off (step 3), the Background was converted to a layer. You can drag the hidden cropped areas into view with the Move tool.

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We’re dragging a handle on the crop box with the 1:1 Ratio option chosen on the Aspect Ratio menu.

CLEAR, RESET, and ORIGINAL RATIO

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To clear the Width, Height (and Resolution) fields on the Options bar at any time and release the Crop tool from any ratio constraints, click the Clear button. The crop box won’t change.

To restore the crop box to the edges of the canvas, reset the image rotation to the x/y axis (if it was rotated), and release the Crop tool from any ratio constraints, either click the Reset button rJ on the Options bar or right-click in the image and choose Reset Crop.

To restore the crop box to the original aspect ratio of the image at any time (and also clear the fields, if displaying), without restoring the box to the edges of the canvas, choose Original Ratio from the Aspect Ratio menu on the Options bar or from the context menu.

Cropping multiple images

Because the Crop tool keeps it, current settings until you change them, you can easily apply the same aspect (width-to-height) ratio, size, or resolution values to multiple images, such as photos taken during the same shoot.

In the first task below, we’ll show you how to crop documents using the same aspect ratio. The dimensions of the images can vary.

To crop one or more images according to an aspect ratio

1. Open one or more images, then click in one of them. Choose the Crop tool (C or Shift C).

2. Do one of the following:

Right-click in the image and choose Use Front Image Aspect Ratio from the context menu.

Choose a ratio preset (e.g., 5:7) from the Aspect Ratio menu on the Options bar, or enter width and height ratio values in the fields.

Resize the crop box, then right-click in the image and choose Use Crop Box Aspect Ratio from the context menu.

3. Values for the current document will be listed on the Options bar and will stick with the Crop tool until you change them. Size the crop box as desired, then double-click inside the box or press Enter/Return to accept it.

4. Click the tab of another open document. Resize the crop box, then accept the crop edits; or to accept the crop without resizing it, press Enter/ Return twice. Repeat this entire-step for any other open images.

Here you will crop multiple documents to specific resolution and dimensions values.

 To crop multiple images to a specified size and resolution:

1 , Open two or more images, then click in one of them. Choose the Crop tool (C or Shift C)

2. On the Options bar, do either of the following: From the Aspect Ratio menu, choose W x H x Resolution, then enter the desired width, height and resolution values.

From the Aspect Ratio menu, choose a W x H x Resolution preset (e.g., 4 x 5 in 300 ppi). There are some new choices in Photoshop CC.

3. Optional: Resize the crop box (the specified dimensions and resolution will still apply to the crop box regardless of its size).

4. To accept the crop edits, either double-click inside the box or press Enter/Return.

5. Click the tab of another open document. Resize the crop box, then accept the crop; or to accept the crop without resizing it, press Enter/Return twice. Repeat this entire step for any other open documents.

To correct perspective problems in a photo resulting from camera lens distortion, we recommend using the Lens Corrections tab of Camera Raw or the Lens Correction filter in Photoshop. With either of these options, you can preview the results, whereas with the perspective Crop tool, you cannot.

You can also crop multiple images to the dimensions and resolution of an existing document (this task) or to a crop box and resolution (next task).

(a05-03) To crop multiple images to the size and resolution of a document:

1.  Open two or more images, and click in the one that has the desired dimensions and resolution.

2. Choose the Crop tool (C or Shift-C).

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3. From the Aspect Ratio menu, choose Front Image or right-click in the image and choose Use Front Image Size & Resolution from the context menu. The document’s width, height and resolution display on the Options bar.

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4. Click the tab of another open image. Resize the crop box, if desired then accept the crop edits; or to accept the crop without editing it, press Enter/Return twice. Repeat this entire step for any other documents.

To crop multiple images to a crop box in, and resolution of, a document:

1. Open two or more images, including one that has the desired resolution.

2. Choose the Crop tool (C or Shift-C).

3. In the document that has the desired resolution resize the crop box to the desired proportions, then right-click in the image and choose Use Crop Box Size & Resolution from the context menu.

4. To accept the crop edits, either double-click inside the box or press Enter/Return.

5. Click the tab of another open document. Resize the crop box, if desired, then accept the crop edits; or to accept the crop without editing it, press Enter/Return twice. Repeat this entire step for any other documents.

Using a selection to define a crop box

If you create a rectangular selection before choosing the Crop tool, the crop box will match the selection boundary. If you want to force the crop box to ignore the selection, press Esc.

Another use of the Crop tool is to increase the canvas size, say, to add a blank area or to reveal imagery that is hidden outside the canvas. This is similar to the Canvas Size command, except here you use manual controls. All the layers in a document are affected.

(a05-04) To enlarge the canvas area with the Crop tool:

1. To display more of the work canvas (gray area) around the image, enlarge the Application frame or lower the zoom level of your document.

2. Choose the Crop tool (C or Shift-C).

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3. On the Options bar, click Clear.

4. Drag a handle of the box outside the canvas area.

5. On the Options bar, check whether you want Photoshop to Delete Cropped pixels or preserve them. On all layers, regardless of this setting, any added areas that don’t contain content will be filled with transparency. If the document has a Background and you check Delete Cropped pixels, you should choose a Background color for the added canvas area now. With Delete Cropped pixels off, the Background will convert to a layer and the added area will fill with transparency.

6. To accept the crop edits, either press Enter/Return or double-click inside the crop box.

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With the Crop tool, we’re dragging the right midpoint handle outside the canvas, to add more canvas area to the side of the image.

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When we released the mouse, because Delete Cropped Pixels was checked for the tool, the added canvas area filled automatically with the current Background color (brown). We accepted the crop edit.

(a05-05) To straighten a crooked layer with the Ruler tool:

1 . Click the Background or a layer. If you select the Background, the Straighten Layer command will convert it to a layer.

2. Choose the Ruler tool (Can be found under the Eye Dropper tool in the drop-down).

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3. Drag along a shape in the image that you want Photoshop to align to the horizontal or vertical axis. The angle will be listed as the A value on the Options bar.

4. Optional: To change the angle of the line, move either one of its end points.

5. On the Options bar, click Straighten Layer.

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6. Optional: Reposition the layer with the Move tool.

7.  Use the Crop tool to finish the image.

Flipping or rotating an image

You can flip or rotate all the layers in an image, or just one layer at a time.

(a05-06) To flip all the layers in an image:

Choose Image > Image Rotation > Flip Canvas Horizontal or Flip Canvas Vertical.

If you flipped a whole image that contains type, and the letters are now reading backwards, don’t flip! Just “un-flip” the type layer using the Flip Horizontal command.

To flip one layer:

1. Click a layer on the Layers panel.

2. Choose Edit > Transform > Flip Horizontal or Flip Vertical. Note: Any layers that are linked to the selected layer or layers will also flip.

To rotate all the layers in an image:

Do either of the following:

Choose Image > Image Rotation > 180, 90 CW (clockwise), or 90 CCW (counterclockwise)

Choose Image > Image Rotation > Arbitrary. Enter an Angle value, click CW (clockwise) or CCW (counterclockwise), then click OK. Any exposed areas on the Background will be filled with the current Background color.

If you want any areas that are exposed by a rotation command to be filled with transparency instead of a solid color, double-click the Background to convert it to a layer before applying the command.

To rotate one layer:

1. On the Layers panel, click a layer.

2. Choose Edit >Transform > Rotate 180, Rotate 90 CW, or Rotate 90 CCW.

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We chose from the top menu Image>Image Rotation>Flip Canvas Horizontal

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And now the entire image is facing the other way….